It is very important to prune the fig tree to achieve optimal growth of our crop and improve the quantity and quality of the harvest.
The objectives of pruning the fig tree are:
- Control the development of the tree.
- Improve the quantity and quality of the harvest.
- To favor illumination and aeration in the canopy and inside the tree.
- Elimination of old branches that may harbor parasites, as well as dry, broken, or damaged branches.
Young fig trees are pruned in the first and second years to determine their structure. Shaping the tree is vital because it could influence the quality and quantity of production, ease of harvesting, and other activities. Fig trees that are more than 4 years old are pruned to preserve their shape and to clear the inner part of the fruit tree, which allows the tree to be better aerated and sunlight to penetrate. All these tasks promote fruit production in future harvests. Mature fig trees are pruned annually or every two years.
There is no written rule on how to prune a fig tree, and the success of the practice will depend largely on the expertise of the person performing the pruning. However, there are some tips to follow when pruning fig trees. So that everything goes well, I will tell you everything you need to know about pruning fig trees.
Table of Contents
When to Prune Fig Tree?
If there is one thing to keep in mind when planning pruning fig trees, it is frost. Fig trees, like other fruit trees, suffer damage to their bark if temperatures drop too low after pruning. Consequently, whenever low temperatures (close to 0°) are expected, pruning should be delayed until the risk disappears.
Therefore, it is important to plan pruning during the fruit tree’s slowest period of activity and growth.
As a general rule, a good time to prune fig trees is right at the beginning of spring, before the tree regains its activity, and as long as there is no risk of low temperatures. This will allow less loss of sap, and as the growing stage is near, the wounds will begin to heal sooner or later. In the case of climates with not very cold winters, pruning in autumn can be a good option.
While important pruning such as training, production, or renewal pruning should be done in cold seasons, green pruning is not. The ideal time for green pruning a fig tree is in early to mid-summer, the warmest time of the year.
Tools Needed to Prune a Fig Tree
To prune a fig tree there are several tools that we will need, depending on the size of the tree and the type of pruning to be done. Here is a list of some of the tools used to prune fig trees:
Pruning shears: To cut branches up to 2″ (5 cm). (Order it here).
Pruning Saw: To saw branches of between 2″ and 8″ (5 and 20 cm). (Order it here)
Extendable Pruning Saw: For pruning high branches. (Order it here).
Chainsaw: To cut thick trunks of more than 8″ (20 cm). We use this very economical electric chainsaw for pruning our larger trees. (Order it here).
Ladder (Order it here).
Safety glasses, gloves, and boots
It is recommended to disinfect the pruning tools before pruning the fig tree. This will help prevent diseases in fruit trees.
How to Prune a Fig Tree
To prune fig trees the first thing we need to know is the type of pruning we are going to do, and for that, we need to know the age of the fruit tree. It is not the same to prune a young fig tree, which is growing and requires training pruning than to prune a mature one, in which we will have to think more about the production and to facilitate the harvesting of the crop.
How to Prune a Young Fig Tree
In general, we can say that a fig tree goes from young to mature between 6 and 10 years old, since, depending on the climate, the area, the variety,… the trees can age in different ways. If it is less than 5 years old, we should carry out a training pruning, at 5 or 6 years of age a fruiting pruning, and from this point on, production pruning.
Pruning during this period of formation should be oriented to the formation of the structure on which the fig tree will later grow. Let’s see the types of pruning to be carried out during this phase:
Formative Pruning of The Fig Tree
This is done to establish the main structure of the tree and direct its growth. As it is a rather drastic pruning, it is done when the tree is at rest, i.e. in autumn or late winter.
Let’s see how to perform training pruning:
In the first year, we must cut back all the branches so that lower branches sprout.
In the second year, the main branches will be cut back a little. The lower branches should be left, except for those sprouting from the lower half of the trunk.
In the third year, the main branches will be pruned to 2/3 of their length, and we will remove the ones that are growing towards the inside of the top of the tree.
Fruiting Pruning of Fig Trees
Its main objective is to establish the main productive branches.
To do this, we will choose the 3 or 4 main branches on which we want the rest of the tree to grow. These branches should not be too steeply inclined, as this will prevent them from being overcome by the weight of the crop.
Next, we will prune the suckers that sprout from these branches and trim them a little, thus establishing the structure of the tree.
How to Prune a Mature Fig Tree
Mature fig trees are pruned to maintain their shape and to clean the inside of the tree. In this way, we facilitate the entrance of light and improve its aeration. It is called production pruning, and we can also meet at this stage with green pruning and rejuvenation pruning. Let’s take a look at them:
Fig Tree Production Pruning
Pruning is carried out to maximize sunlight and favor aeration of the interior of the tree. The aim is to obtain an abundant and better quality harvest.
It is a cleaning and thinning of the branches, to facilitate the entry of light to benefit the fruit. Lobed canopies are preferable to spherical ones, since this way we increase the area of exposure, making the most of the light. In addition, we will also cut the branches that are not very productive so that new ones can sprout.
With all this, the yield of the tree is improved, to improve production in future harvests.
We will do it as follows:
- First, we will eliminate the largest suckers, since they are not very productive and absorb sap from the branch on which they have sprouted.
- We should not eliminate all the suckers, but leave the weaker ones located inside the tree to shade the woods that make up the structure of the fig tree.
- The lowest branches should be cut since they receive the least light and therefore produce the poorest quality fruit.
- The crown should have a rounded shape, with many projections and protrusions to increase exposure and make better use of sunlight. Intertwined branches inside the canopy, as well as those that are damaged, broken, or diseased, should also be pruned.
- Thinning of fine branches should be avoided to maintain the leaf/wood ratio. This will avoid excess wood, which reduces the renewal capacity of productive branches.
Fig Tree Rejuvenation Pruning
Rejuvenation pruning, also called renewal pruning, is performed on trees with signs of aging after having been producing for more than 20 years. These symptoms can be low production and poorer quality, loss of foliage inside the tree, smaller and yellowish leaves.
It is done to rejuvenate the fig tree and can be done drastically or progressively.
Drastic rejuvenation pruning: In the first case what we do is to eliminate all the foliage of the tree, leaving practically the base of the trunk and the main branches to grow again.
Progressive rejuvenation pruning: It consists of pruning from the top of the crown to the base of the branches. It is done in phases, every 3 years we will cut one of the four main branches of the tree.
Green Pruning of Fig Trees
In summer, renewal pruning or green pruning can be carried out.
Although they can be done at any time of the year, they are usually done at the end of August, when the fig tree is barely active due to the high temperatures. This is done to control the growth of suckers, eliminating those that are not useful for the fig tree.